Focus on the outcome

The target of bodybuilding is the growth of lean muscle mass.

Marketing tricks you into believing in fantastic results and fast progression. That’s not how bodybuilding works. Look at the investment what you have (money, time, effort) and look at the outcome what you get in return.

Whenever you engage in activity, a product or a new action, look and define an outcome what you want to achieve with it. If you take a supplement over the course of 6 months and you don’t find a significant change that can not be attributed to any of your other actions (e.g. diet or workout changes), then drop it. Same goes for a new workout routine. If you don’t get challenged regularly with new impulses for your muscles and you’re not sore, you’re not progressing, but stagnating. Change your workout. If you continuously increase your weight with your diet, and you only get fatter, change your diet.

To be sure what’s happening with your body, measure your body compartments (fat, muscle, other) regularly. So you can objectively check your progress and evaluate your doing.

The muscle doesn’t have eyes

A very intriguing study published by Angleri et al. proves a pretty important point. Muscles don’t “care” WHAT you do, as long the overall load remains the same. In the study they compared three different training protocols. “Traditional” sets with 12-15 reps, increasing pyramid sets, or drops sets. They made sure that the overall load during each type of sets was the same, and thus, in the end, the effect was for all the same after 12 weeks.

Crescent pyramid and drop set systems do not promote greater gains in strength, muscle hypertrophy and changes in muscle architecture compared to traditional resistance training.

The muscle has no eyes. That means he doesn’t see what you do with it during workout. However, he does have a sensor for energy used during workout and for the maximal weight pushed. So, keep your load high and exhaust your muscle by the end of the workout and you WILL grow.

BCAA’s are overrated

I read often posts about how much BCAA’s should be taken and how important they are.

BCAA’s are necessary to grow muscle, but only the initiation. All the other amino acids are needed too to make the muscle truly grow.

[…] they have presented us with intriguing evidence that despite the potent anabolic properties of leucine supplementation, a full complement of essential amino acids, in a rapidly digestible form of whey, is required to facilitate the anabolic actions of leucine leading to muscle protein accretion and hypertrophy. […]
– J Physiol 590.9 (2012) pp 2065–2066

Leucine acts on the initiation of the anabolic pathway and thus is only a proxy for digested protein. Just to ingest Leucine (or BCAAs) means you push the button, but you don’t have any current afterwards to have the light. There seems to be also an “upper limit” (aka. muscle full effect) when it comes to overall protein/ leucine ingestion.

Therefore it’s not okay to replace a “full” protein like whey with BCAAs only if you want to grow bigger. You may initiate the growth with BCAAs, but you must deliver the other amino acids too to reap the benefits of your action.

However, there’s a downside to high BCAA ingestion too: It can increase the risk of ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis).

[BCAA] leads to a hyperexcitability of the cells: they fire more action potentials than control cells for the same amount of excitation (Pieri et al., 2009). In the present work, Carunchio et al. show that a diet enriched in BCAAs also induced a hyperexcitability of the cortical motoneurons. This effect was dose dependent and specific to BCAAs, as diet enriched with non-branched-chained amino acids such as alanine or phenylalanine did not alter the excitability of the cells.
– Manuel et al.

BCAAs are not the magic supplement. They are okay to use, but not needed in insane amounts.

Ketogenic diet in bodybuilders

Today, I was asked why I do not recommend a ketogenic diet more often, because it is so good to lose fat and build muscle. This may be true, but under following conditions: It must be hypocaloric, the workout is super strenuous and the athlete experienced.

Most people want to build muscle. The biochemical 1×1 sets simple rules, to which even with the ketogenic diet must abide. A muscle without glycogen will NEVER achieve the same performance and growth as one with.

The muscle is composed of 2 types of fibers: the “fast” white glycolytic fibers (sometimes called Type 2 or type 2X) and the “slow” red oxidative fibers (sometimes called type 1). The white fibers can become broader and thicker, which is usually the goal in bodybuilding. But they are really bad in the use of ketones as energy supply. The red fibers can become “better” but not much thicker due to their structure and their metabolism. That is why endurance athletes, despite their considerable performance, are never very muscular.

This means that under a strictly ketogenic diet, the muscle can not properly use and activate its “strong” fibers, and thus they can not become thicker and larger because the muscle can not lift much weight. If you want big muscles, you have to grow them with big weights, and this is only possible with carbohydrates in the food.

However, if you’re on a diet and want to emphasize the muscle structure and reduce your fat, it’s easier with the ketogenic diet because you’re less hungry because of the lack of insane insulin fluctuations.

In conclusion: First set the target, then set the nutritional form and do not simply try it without switching the brain on 🙂

About bro-science and the Dunning-Kruger-Effect

There are a lot of myths around in bodybuilding. What to eat, what to avoid and what supplements to take. Most of this is actually “broscience”: Bro stands for the colloquial use of “brother” in the gym. It means the pseudo science that is applied behind most of these myths.

If a substance has an effect in a petri dish, or has been shown to influence the metabolic pathway in mice, it doesn’t mean that it actually does the same in humans. And in the end, it’s always the question: What’s the outcome? If you spend 1200 bucks a year on a supplement that might make you grow 1kg of muscle mass, then that’s money you could spend on other things. Maybe a nice holiday, or some proven supplements, which actually DO have an effect.

Since bodybuilding in the beginning is quite straight forward, people think the science behind it is too. That is a fallacy. It’s a lot to understand and to comprehend what REALLY happens in the body. Some of the broscience experts think otherwise, and that they know it better. There’s a really nice proven effect, called the Dunning-Kruger-Effect.

The Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which low-ability individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly assessing their ability as much higher than it really is. Dunning and Kruger attributed this bias to a metacognitive incapacity, on the part of those with low ability, to recognize their ineptitude and evaluate their competence accurately.


So, people overestimate their knowledge on the matter easily and forget that despite it might look easy, it’s probably not. Their confidence fools them into thinking they know better what they don’t.

To understand the dynamics of biochemistry, hormones, metabolism, homeostasis, etc. is not easy, and I look up to those who do understand it.

So, be aware of promises of quick gains, the magic pill or the unique routine. They don’t exist, they don’t make you progress long-term.


Flu-shot – should I?


The flu is a mostly seasonal disease that incapacitates a normal human about a week. Some are more intestinal, others are more headachy, and some are more on your lung. In either case, they take away from you at least a week of proper workout and nutrition. And they bear the risk that you do get a post-flu myocarditis (=cardiac muscle inflammation).

A flu shot will prohibit all this. Usually there are 3-4 kind of seasonal flues in the shot, so you get protected reasonably well to what is to come. There are very little side effects except some local soreness. But you won’t be hindered in workout, nor in your nutrition.

If you want to understand how vaccines work and why the flu shot is important, have a look at this comic.

There are no scientific arguments against any vaccination, there are only unproven emotional ones.

Sudden cardiac death

A friend of mine died yesterday from sudden cardiac death.

Most common cause for sudden cardiac death is Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Although rare in the general population (0.1% to 0.2% prevalence), HCM is the most common cause of SCD in young athletes followed by left ventricular hypertrophy. Steroid abuse creates hypertrophy. Coronary artery anomalies, myocarditis, marfan Syndrome, and electrophysiologic abnormalities. are cited too. Myocarditis is usually following a systemic inflammation (e.g. the flu) when you go to the gym too early without proper rest.

A review from Koester et al comes to following conclusion:

Sudden cardiac death is a rare event in athletics. […] Most afflicted athletes have no symptoms before death.

The use of diagnostic tests to screen for cardiovascular abnormalities is ineffective and inefficient. The most prudent and effective methods of preparticipation screening for cardiovascular abnormalities at this time are a history and physical examination in accordance with the American Heart Association guidelines. Athletic trainers must ensure that their institutions comply with these minimum standards.

So, if you are an active athlete and engaging in heavy sport and you have funny symptoms, it’s good to have a check up.

However, more important than this is actually that you know how to perform CPR. If someone faints besides you in the gym without reason, then you must be able to perform CPR. This will increase the survival heavily, until professional help arrives. So start a course and learn how to do it: You will save lives.

Gym Regeln.. (nicht ganz ernst nehmen!)

1. Masse ist Macht!
2. Viel hilft viel!
3. Von nichts kommt nichts!
4. Nur schwer macht schwer!
5. Es gibt nie zu schwer…nur zu schwach!
6. Was weh tut wächst!
7. Weniger ist NICHT mehr!
8. Dicke Arme sind nur durch dickere Arme zu ersetzen!
9. Quäle deinen Körper, sonst quält er dich!
10. Besser breit sterben als schmal leben!
11. Wer Protein sät wird Muskeln ernten!
12. Eine Umkleidebank dient lediglich als Ablage für Shakes oder sonstige Aufbauprodukte!
13. Übertraining gibt es nicht! Nur zu wenig Schlaf und zu wenig Essen!
14. Ausdauersport schadet der Figur (siehe Regel 1!)
15. Seilspringen ist was für Mädchen…Therabänder und Gymnastikbälle auch!
16. Nur Eisen gibt Kraft!
17. Wenn nix mehr geht, gehen immer noch 10 Wiederholungen!
18. Wenn du keine 10 Wiederholungen schaffst, dann mach‘ halt 12!
19. Wenn keine 5kg Scheibe da ist, nimm eine 10kg Scheibe!
20. Eine Hantel macht noch keinen Muskel!
21. Egal ob dein T-Shirt von Adidas, Reebok oder Nike ist, nach dem Training muss es nach Puma riechen!
22. Die Geräte sind nicht mit Handtüchern zu blockieren, wir sind hier nicht im Urlaub!
23. Schweiß fließt wenn Muskeln weinen!
24. Es gibt keinen guten Grund nicht zu trainieren…nur schlechte Ausreden!
25. Dieser Raum ist ein Kraftraum und kein Kino!
26. Ab 12 Wiederholungen trainiert man auf Definition.
27. Montag ist Brusttag!
28. Beim Training böse gucken ist extrem anabol.

Lab values in bodybuilders

Doctors love to do labs to check if everything is “in order”. Often, some values are increased in bodybuilders, and this is interpreted as hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) or even abuse of anabolic steroids. However, usually there is a easy plausible explanation for it.

The hard workout increases the values itself quite a bit which has been documented in medical literature extensively:

Foran et al. has shown a quite extensive overview of all the lab values that can be either increased, unchanged or decreased with physical activity. This is a highly recommended read for any medical person.

Brancaccio et al. has given quite a good overview of the increase of CK values, which is a lab value used to detect muscle destruction. There seem to be high responders and low responder, and values around 500 U/l are not uncommon. The reference intervals in Mougios et al. were shown to be 82–1083 U/L (37 ̊C) in males and 47–513 U/L in female athletes, which corresponds to an increase of the “normal” upper limit of 10x to 20x of inactive persons. Also Sjogren et al. has said in a short expert interview that those values are not uncommon and bear no pathological significance.

The article from Petterson et al. shows that a CK increase of over 10’000 U/l after workout has been shown in more than half of the 35 test subjects, including an increase of the ALT and AST, which both are liver values. On the other hand, GGT and bilirubin are not increased significantly, which is a sign that the liver function is not impaired.

This increase is different from sports to sports. Foran et al. has shown that the endurance sports can not be compared to strength- /sprint sport and Mougios et al. also shows this massive difference. However, there seems to be no influence of mortality, (which is common by otherwise increased liver values), shown by Garatachea et al.


The increase of liver values and CK values in bodybuilders are common and have no pathological value. The values can persist up to 10 days after workout. To be sure, those values should be checked after a longer break (e.g. after the holidays), and check hepatitis virus values to exclude the unlikely existence of a hepatitis or muscle disease. However, it’s unlikely to be able to perform a high demanding sport and have an underlying chronic disease at the same time. Only if other clinical signs point to a higher odds of a underlying disease, then the rigorous testing should be performed.